National Park Service, Statue of Liberty national Monument
and Ellis Island
Statue of Liberty tells ocean-weary immigrants that they have
arrived in America.
Take the Statue of Liberty
& Ellis Island ferry from either Battery Park or
Liberty State Park in New Jersey.
.04 sq. mi. (.11 sq. km.)
Origin of Current Name: Named after 18th century
owner Samuel Ellis, who sold the island to the federal
Previous names: Kioshk (to 1628), Oyster
(1628-1664), Gull (1664-1765), Gibbet (1765-c1770),
Current use: National monument
large, green woman
Same as Ellis
.09 sq. mi. (.23 sq. km.)
Origin of Current Name: Named after the Statue
Previous names: Minnissais, Great Oyster,
Bedloo's, Kennedy's, Corporation, Bedlow's, Bedloe's
Current use: National monument
Welcoming Millions to New York
By Noel Pangilinan
and Liberty islands have long been associated with the history
of immigration to the United States. For the more than 12 million
immigrants who came between 1892 and 1954, these two islands in
Upper New York Bay, southwest of lower Manhattan, were forever etched
in their collective memory as their entry points to America.
Island, which housed an immigration screening center, was the gatekeeper,
where all the would-be immigrants disembarked, showing their documents
and completed medical evaluations before they were allowed to enter
the country. Liberty Island, which is home to the Statue of Liberty,
welcomed and inspired millions of ocean-weary travelers. It also
signaled the end of their long and tortuous journey to the "land
of the free."
these two islands have a colorful history that dates back much further
than their days as sentries of immigration. <Click
here to see the timeline of Ellis and Liberty history>
the 1600s, Ellis Island was a sand bar near the mouth of the Hudson
River. Barely three acres in size, the island could hardly be seen
during high tide. The Mohegan Indians who lived on shores nearby
called it Kioshk, or Gull Island. Dutch settlers renamed it Oyster
Island, after discovering its rich oyster beds in 1628. When the
British took over from the Dutch in 1664, they called it by its
old name, Gull Island. In 1765, following the hanging of pirates
and convicts, the island was renamed Gibbet Island, after the instrument
used to hang them.
island was eventually sold to Samuel Ellis, who developed it into
a picnic spot in the late 1700s. The U.S. War Department bought
the island for $10,000 in 1808 to provide for the city's defense.
During the Civil War, Fort Gibson housed prisoners there, but also
weapons and ammunition arsenal for the Union Army.
1892, Ellis Island was selected to be the new immigration center,
replacing Castle Garden (now Castle Clinton) in Battery Park, which
had become too small to screen the growing numbers of immigrants.
The Ellis Island immigration station opened on Jan. 1, 1892.
National Park Service, Statue
of Liberty National Monument and Ellis Island(left),
Main Arrival Hall of the immigration center was closed in 1954.
Nowadays, it is part of a museum.
decision to house the immigration center on Ellis Island coincided
with a conscious effort to enlarge the island. By 1890, landfill
from incoming ships' ballast and the earth that came from digging
the city's subway tunnels had doubled the island's size to six acres.
Today, Ellis Island measures 27 acres.
Island was closed in November 1954 after tougher immigration laws
significantly reduced the number of immigrants coming through its
island was placed under the National Park Service in 1965 as part
of the Statue of Liberty National Monument. It was reopened to the
public in 1976.
a six-year-long restoration project that cost $156 million, the
Main Arrivals Building was reopened to the public in 1990. It is
now a museum that chronicles the history of the Ellis Island Immigration
Station. In May 1998, New York lost possession of much of Ellis
Island. After a 160-year old dispute with New Jersey over territorial
rights over Ellis Island, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in New
Jersey v. New York that nearly 90 percent of the present-day
island, or 24 acres of landfill, belongs to New Jersey. The court
allowed New York to keep the original 3-acre island.
dispute began in 1834, when the U.S. Congress gave New York the
rights to Ellis Island that was then only three acres wide, and
New Jersey the tidewater control of the underwater portions. The
landfill that expanded the island moved it west of the agreed boundary
line, which New Jersey claimed to be right within its territory.
Mohegans called it Minnissais, which means Lesser Island. At various
times, the island has been known as Great Oyster, Love Island, Bedloo's
Island, Kennedy's Island, Corporation Island, Bedlow's Island and
most recently Bedloe's Island. It was renamed Liberty Island in
National Park Service, Statue of Liberty National Monument
and Ellis Island
check immigrants' eyes for trachoma.
the Dutch, the island became the property of merchant Isaack Bedloo.
His daughter sold the island to Adolphe Philipse and Henry Lane
in 1732 for five shillings. About the same time, the island became
a smallpox quarantine station for New York.
1746, Archibald Kennedy bought the island for £100. New York
State ordered him to build a beacon on the island to warn New Jersey,
Connecticut and New York of any approaching danger. In 1756, the
island was used again as a temporary quarantine spot for smallpox.
Kennedy sold the island for £1,000 to the City of New York,
which used as a pest house.
the British, the island was used as a refuge for loyalists during
the American Revolution. In 1796, it was turned over to the New
York State as a hospital site, and in 1800, it was ceded to the
after the United States gained independence, Bedloe's Island, together
with Ellis Island and Governors Island, was chosen as a defense
fortification to protect the New York Harbor.
1877, the island was chosen as the site for the Statue of Liberty,
a gift from France to the United States to honor the two nations'
alliance during the American Revolution. Liberty Enlightening the
World, the statue's official name, was designed by the French sculptor
Frederic-Auguste Bartholdi. Gustave Eiffel, who later built Paris'
famous Eiffel Tower, devised its iron skeleton.
151-foot-high, 225-ton statue arrived in New York Harbor on June
17, 1886, packed in 214 wooden crates. It was mounted on a pedestal
built with funds raised by New York World publisher Joseph
Statue of Liberty was dedicated and finally unveiled to the American
people on Oct. 28, 1886, by President Glover Cleveland. <Click
here to take a video tour of the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island>
1903, the sonnet "The New Colossus" by poet Emma Lazarus
was inscribed in bronze at the base of the 15-story-tall statue.
Part of it read:
me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore,
Send these, the homeless, the tempest-tossed to me,
I lit my lamp beside the golden door."
Statue of Liberty was declared a national monument in 1924.
a result of heightened security after the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist
attacks, only the grounds on Liberty Island are open to the public.
The statue, the pedestal museum exhibit and the crown are closed
the security precautions, visitors could take an elevator or climb
192 steps to an observation deck at the top of the pedestal. There
is also a museum located inside the pedestal that tells the history
of the monument and features the original torch and flame. For a
breathtaking view of New York Harbor and New York City, one could
climb an additional 354 steps all the way up to the statue's crown.
The National Park Service; B. Moreno, The Statue of Liberty Encyclopedia
(2000); The Expanded Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia (2003); The
Reader's Companion to American History, Eric Foner and John A. Garraty,
Editors; The Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island Foundation (SOLEIF);